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Test 3  

2010-03-31 19:51:59|  分类: 词汇学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

 

Chapter3: Test

I. Multiple choices

1.More than one variant, which can realize some morphemes according to the position in a word, are termed        .

A. phonemes            B. allomorphs         C. morphs                 D. phones

2. In the words "recollection, idealistic, and ex-prisoner", "re-, -ion, -ist, -ic, ex-, and -er" are       

A. prefixes        B. suffixes          C. free morphemes      D. bound morphemes

3.      is that part of the word that carries the fundamental meaning but has to be used in combination with other morphemes to make words. 

A. Free root             B. Bound root            C. Morpheme       D. Bound morpheme

4. Affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are known as    . 

A. morphemes                            B. derivational morphemes        

C. inflectional morphemes               D. suffixes

5.      is the basic form of a word, which can't be further analyzed without total loss of identity.  

A. Stem              B. Root              C. Morpheme             D. Affix

6. A        may consist of a single       morpheme as in "iron" or of two     morphemes as in a compound like "handcuff". 

A. stem, root, root                        B. root, stem, stem            

C. stem, stem, root                        D. root, root, stem

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. A word is the smallest unit of a language which stands alone to convey meaning.

2. Allomorphs usually occur at random, because they are not phonetically conditioned and unpredictable.

3. We might as well say free morphemes are free roots.

4. Words made up of only bound morphemes are rare in English.

5. In English, bound roots are either Latin or French. 

III. Fill in the blanks. The first letter of each word is given.

1. The m      is to the m        what a phoneme to a phone. 

2. One of the variants realizing a morpheme is called a        .

3. Most morphemes are realized by single words like "bird, tree, green", etc, Words of these kinds are called m         words.

4. The allomorphs of the plural morpheme can be realized by z        m       as in "deer—deer", "fish—fish".

5. Morphemes can be classified into f      morphemes and b       morphemes.

6. Bound morphemes include b      roots and a         .

7. Affixes can be grouped into d      and i      .

IV. Define the following terms.

morpheme,   allomorph,  bound morpheme, free morpheme,  affix, inflectional affix,  derivational affix, root, stem    

V. Answer the following questions.

1. Morphemes are realized by allomorphs. Illustrate this point on the basis of the knowledge obtained from this chapter.

2. What are the inflectional affixes frequently used in English? Discuss the meaning each of them indicates. 

 

KEYs to Test 3

I. Multiple Choices

 1.B   2.D    3.B   4.C    5.B    6.A    7.D

II. True or False

1.F    2.F         3.T         4.F         5.F 

III. Fill in the blanks

1. morpheme, morph     2. allomorph      3. monomorphemic    4. zero morph 

5. free, bound        6.bound, affixes      7. derivational, inflectional

IV.  Define terms

   morpheme: a minimal meaningful unit of a language.

   allomorph: one of the variants that realize a morpheme.

   bound morpheme: a morpheme that occurs with at least one other morpheme.

   free morpheme: a morpheme that can stand alone.

   affix: a morpheme attached to a stem or root.

   inflectional affix: an affix that indicates grammatical relationships.

   derivational affix: an affix that forms new words with a stem or root.

   root: what remains of a word after the removal of all affixes.

   stem: a form to which affixes of any kind can be added.

V. Answer the questions

1. For instance, the morpheme of plurality{—s}has a number of allomorphs in different sound context, e.g. in cats /s/, in bags /z/, in matches /iz/. It can be realized by the change of an internal vowel as by zero morph as in “deer—deer, fish—fish”. The same is true of the past tense marker {—ed}, which is realized by /t/ after a verb ending with /p, k/ as in worked, helped; by /d/ after vowels and sounds like/m, n,η, l/ as in tried, warmed and by /id/ after /t, d/ as in wanted, landed, etc. This is also applicable to affixational morphemes. The prefix {in-} has allomorphs such as / im, ir, il/depending on the first sound of the base to which the prefix is added.

II.

-(e)s— plural number

-(e)s—  third- person singular present tense

-(e)d— past tense

-ing— progressive aspect

-er— comparative degree

-est— superlative degree

-'s— possessive case

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